Unmanaged solid technology waste disposal is one of the main causes of environmental degradation of localities. Solid waste management problem is growing day by day especially in urban areas of the country. In rural areas, the most part of generated waste is biodegradable (meaning they can degrade in biological environment) and natural system is able to absorb it. Therefore the problem of solid waste management is not yet felt in rural areas of our country. By country i am referring to my homeland Nepal. On the other hand, increasing population density is the leading cause of solid waste management problem in urban domain in Nepal. Here, solid waste management can be defined as: Solid waste management means handling process of solid waste materials from generating, at source to disposal.It is noted that people’s cooperation is the vital aspect in the solid waste management activities. At the same time, habits and attitudes of the inhabitants affect highly in the waste management activities. The respective Municipality is the main responsible institution for the cleaning localities and waste management.
Waste should be managed at the place from where it generates. More wastes are introduced in the city areas because of dense population than rural areas. Hence, proper managements of waste is essential to save the !environment of these localities.
Sources of Solid Wastage
The place, institutions, organisations, and sites that generate solid wastage are known as the sources of solid wastage. The type of the wastage under consideration depends upon the various sources of those wastage. For instance, the wastage generated from the agricultural field and commercial places are less hazardous in comparison to the wastage produced from the hospitals and its pathology and labs. Some of the
major sources of solid wastage are :
Domestic wastage are those wastes, which are generated from household. They contain a variety of waste materials thrown out from our homes. These wastes include many substances and materials like peels of fruits and vegetables, packing materials, pieces of glasses, food wastage, paper, cardboard, plastics, textiles, yard wastes, wood, glass, metals, ashes, cloth, waste paper, glass bottles, polythene bags, waste
The wastage generated from the industries like chemical plants, manufacturing and refinery industries come under industrial wastage. The waste paper, plastics, cardboard, packaging paper, damaged machine parts, cans, bottle, polythene bags,rubbish, scrap metals, rubber, glass, wood, paints,etc are generated as a byproduct from the industries.
The wastage that are generated from the shops, vegetable markets, hotels, offices d institutions are known as commercial wastage. These wastes include packaging materials, plastics, cardboard, waste paper, cans, bottle, polythene bags, rotten its and vegetables, etc.
Schools, colleges, hospitals, prisons, government offices, and religious sites are considered as the solid wastage generating places.The institutional wastes include plastics, cardboard,waste paper, packaging material, cans, bottle, polythene bags, damaged furniture, food wastes, empty pens,etc.
The waste materials generated from the construction and deminishing of buildings,construction of road, paving the pipes of drinking water and sewage dare called construction related wastage. Those wastage include the construction and demolition materials like concrete, sand, bricks, wood, debris, pieces of iron rods,etc.
Hospitals, nursing homes, polyclinics, laboratories and pathology, generate hazardous wastage. Those wastage include infectious items such as amputated body parts, body fluids, cultures of pathogens, anatomical wastes, infectious wastes etc. They also include bandages, needles and other wastes from operation theatres and medicinal laboratories.
The wastage are also generated from the places like orchards, vineyards, dairies, fishponds, poultry and cattle farm. Spoiled food wastes, agricultural wastes, rotten vegetables, spoiled tea leaves, dry leaves, weeds, damaged fertilisers, pesticides, and insecticides come under the wastage of this kind.